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Sysquake Pro – Table of Contents

Sysquake for LaTeX – Table of Contents

# String Functions

### base32decode

Decode base32-encoded data.

#### Syntax

strb = base32decode(strt)

#### Description

`base32decode(strt)` decodes the contents of string `strt`
which represents data encoded with base32. Characters which are not 'A'-'Z', '2'-'7',
or '=' are ignored. Decoding stops at the end of the string or when '=' is reached.

#### See also

### base32encode

Encode data using base32.

#### Syntax

strt = base32encode(strb)

#### Description

`base32encode(strb)` encodes the contents of string `strb`
which represents binary data. The result contains only characters 'A'-'Z' and '2'-'7',
and linefeed every 56 characters. It is suitable for transmission or storage on media
which accept only uppercase letters and digits, without '0' or '1' easy to misinterpret
as letters.

Each character of encoded data represents 5 bits of binary data; i.e. one needs eight characters for five bytes. The five bits represent 32 different values, encoded with the characters 'A' to 'Z' and '2' to '7' in this order. When the binary data have a length which is not a multiple of 5, encoded data are padded with 2, 3, 5 or 6 characters '=' to have a multiple of 8.

Base32 encoding is an Internet standard described in RFC 4648.

#### Example

s = base32encode(char(0:10)) s = AAAQEAYEAUDAOCAJBI====== d = double(base32decode(s)) d = 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

#### See also

### base64decode

Decode base64-encoded data.

#### Syntax

strb = base64decode(strt)

#### Description

`base64decode(strt)` decodes the contents of string `strt`
which represents data encoded with base64. Characters which are not 'A'-'Z', 'a'-'z',
'0'-'9', '+', '/', or '=' are ignored. Decoding stops at the end of the string or
when '=' is reached.

#### See also

### base64encode

Encode data using base64.

#### Syntax

strt = base64encode(strb)

#### Description

`base64encode(strb)` encodes the contents of string `strb`
which represents binary data. The result contains only characters 'A'-'Z', 'a'-'z',
'0'-'9', '+', '/', and '='; and linefeed every 60 characters. It is suitable for
transmission or storage on media which accept only text.

Each character of encoded data represents 6 bits of binary data; i.e. one needs four characters for three bytes. The six bits represent 64 different values, encoded with the characters 'A' to 'Z', 'a' to 'z', '0' to '9', '+', and '/' in this order. When the binary data have a length which is not a multiple of 3, encoded data are padded with one or two characters '=' to have a multiple of 4.

Base64 encoding is an Internet standard described in RFC 2045.

#### Example

s = base64encode(char(0:10)) s = AAECAwQFBgcICQo= double(base64decode(s)) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

#### See also

### char

Convert an array to a character array (string).

#### Syntax

s = char(A) S = char(s1, s2, ...)

#### Description

`char(A)` converts the elements of matrix `A` to
characters, resulting in a string of the same size. Characters are stored
in unsigned 16-bit words. The shape of `A` is preserved. Even
if most functions ignore the string shape, you can force a row vector with
`char(A(:).')`.

`char(s1,s2,...)` concatenates vertically the arrays given as
arguments to produce a string matrix. If the strings do not have the same number
of columns, blanks are added to the right.

#### Examples

char(65:70) ABCDEF char([65, 66; 67, 68](:).') ABCD char('ab','cde') ab cde char('abc',['de';'fg']) abc de fg

#### See also

`setstr`,
uint16,
operator `:`,
operator `.'`,
`ischar`,
`logical`,
`double`,
`single`

### deblank

Remove trailing blank characters from a string.

#### Syntax

s2 = deblank(s1)

#### Description

`deblank(s1)` removes the trailing blank characters from string
`s1`. Blank characters are spaces (code 32), tabulators (code 9),
carriage returns (code 13), line feeds (code 10), and null characters (code 0).

#### Example

double(' \tAB CD\r\n\0') 32 9 65 66 32 32 67 68 13 10 0 double(deblank(' \tAB CD\n\r\0'))) 32 9 65 66 32 32 67 68

#### See also

### hmac

HMAC authentication hash.

#### Syntax

hash = hmac(hashtype, key, data) hash = hmac(hashtype, key, data, type=t)

#### Description

`hmac(hashtype,key,data)` calculates the authentication hash of
`data` with secret key `key` and the method specified
by `hashtype`: `'md5'`, `'sha1'`, `'sha224'`,
`'sha256'`, `'sha384'`, or `'sha512'`.
Both arguments `data` and `key` can be strings (char arrays)
which are converted to UTF-8, or int8 or uint8 arrays. The key can be up to 64 bytes;
longer keys are truncated.
The result is a string of hexadecimal digits whose length depends on the hash method,
from 32 for HMAC-MD5 to 128 for HMAC-SHA512.

Named argument `type` can change the output type. It can be
`'uint8'` for an uint8 array of 16 or 20 bytes (raw HMAC-MD5 or HMAC-SHA1 hash result),
`'hex'` for its representation as a string of 32 or 40 hexadecimal digits (default),
or `base64` for its conversion to Base64 in a string of 24 or 28 characters.

HMAC is an Internet standard described in RFC 2104.

#### Examples

HMAC-MD5 of `'Authenticated message'` using secret key
`'secret'`:

hmac('md5', 'secret', 'Authenticated message') 4f557b1f67bc4790e6e9568e2f458cf0

Same result computed explicitly, with the notations of RFC 2104:
`B` is the block length, `L` is the hash length
(16 for HMAC-MD5 or 20 for HMAC-SHA1), K is the key padded with zeros
to have size `B`, and `H` is the hash function,
defined here to produce a uint8 hash instead of an hexadecimal string
like the LME functions `md5` or `sha1`.

B = 64; L = 16; H = @(a) uint8(sscanf(md5(a), '%2x')'); key = uint8('secret'); data = uint8('Authenticated message'); K = [key, zeros(1, B - length(key), 'uint8')]; hash = H([bitxor(K, 0x5cuint8), H([bitxor(K, 0x36uint8), data])]); sprintf('%.2x', hash)

Simple implementation of the HOTP and TOTP password algorithms (RFC 4226 and 6238) often used for two-factor authentication, with their default parameter values. The password is assumed to be base32-encoded.

function n = hotp(pass, cnt) k = uint8(base32decode(pass)); c = bwrite(cnt, 'uint64;b'); // or c=bwrite([floor(c/2^32),mod(c,2^32)],'uint32;b'); hs = hmac('sha1', k, c, type='uint8'); ob = mod(hs(20), 16); dt = mod(sread(hs(ob + (1:4)), [], 'uint32;b'), 2^31); n = mod(dt, 1e6); function n = totp(pass) t = floor(posixtime / 30); n = hotp(pass, t);

Simple implementation of the PBKDF2 key stretching algorithm (RFC 2898):

function dk = pbkdf2_hmac(hashtype, p, salt, c, dkLen) hLen = length(hmac(hashtype, '', '')) / 2; dk = uint8([]); for i = 1:ceil(dkLen / hLen) u = hmac(hashtype, p, [salt, bwrite(i, 'uint32;b')], type='uint8'); f = u; for j = 2:c u = hmac(hashtype, p, u, type='uint8'); f = bitxor(f, u); end dk = [dk, f]; end dk = dk(1:dkLen);

Test of PBKDF2-HMAC-SHA1 with values provided in RFC 6070 (output format is switched to hexadecimal for easier comparison):

format int x pbkdf2_hmac_sha1('sha1', 'password', 'salt', 4096, 20) 0x4b 0x0 0x79 0x1 0xb7 0x65 0x48 0x9a 0xbe 0xad 0x49 0xd9 0x26 0xf7 0x21 0xd0 0x65 0xa4 0x29 0xc1 format

#### See also

### ischar

Test for a string object.

#### Syntax

b = ischar(obj)

#### Description

`ischar(obj)` is true if the object `obj` is a
character string, false otherwise. Strings can have more than one line.

#### Examples

ischar('abc') true ischar(0) false ischar([]) false ischar('') true ischar(['abc';'def']) true

#### See also

`isletter`, `isspace`,
`isnumeric`,
`islogical`,
`isinteger`,
`islist`,
`isstruct`,
`setstr`,
`char`

### isdigit

Test for decimal digit characters.

#### Syntax

b = isdigit(s)

#### Description

For each character of string `s`, `isdigit(s)` is true
if it is a digit (`'0'` to `'9'`) and false otherwise.
The result is a logical array with the same size as the input argument.

#### Examples

isdigit('a123bAB12* ') F T T T F F F T T F F

#### See also

`isletter`,
`isspace`,
`lower`,
`upper`,
`ischar`

### isletter

Test for letter characters.

#### Syntax

b = isletter(s)

#### Description

For each character of string `s`, `isletter(s)` is true
if it is an ASCII letter (a-z or A-Z) and false otherwise. The result is a logical
array with the same size as the input argument.

`isletter` gives
false for letters outside the 7-bit ASCII range; `unicodeclass` should be used
for Unicode-aware tests.

#### Examples

isletter('abAB12*') T T T T F F F F

#### See also

`isdigit`,
`isspace`,
`lower`,
`upper`,
`ischar`,
`unicodeclass`

### isspace

Test for space characters.

#### Syntax

b = isspace(s)

#### Description

For each character of string `s`, `isspace(s)` is true
if it is a space, a tabulator, a carriage return or a line feed, and false otherwise.
The result is a logical array with the same size as the input argument.

#### Example

isspace('a\tb c\nd') F T F T F T F

#### See also

### latex2mathml

Convert LaTeX equation to MathML.

#### Syntax

str = latex2mathml(tex) str = latex2mathml(tex, mml1, mml2, ...) str = latex2mathml(..., displaymath=b)

#### Description

`latex2mathml(tex)` converts LaTeX equation in string `tex` to
MathML. LaTeX equations may be enclosed between dollars or double-dollars, but this is not mandatory.
In string literals, backslash and tick characters must be escaped as
`\``\` and `\``'` respectively.

With additional arguments, which must be strings containing MathML,
parameters `#1`, `#2`, ... in argument `tex` are converted to argument i+1.

The following LaTeX features are supported:

- variables (each letter is a separate variable)
- numbers (sequences of digit and dot characters)
- superscripts and subscripts, prime (single or multiple)
- braces used to group subexpressions or specify arguments with more than one token
- operators (
`+`,`-`, comma, semicolon, etc.) - control sequences for character definitions, with greek characters in lower case (
`\alpha`, ...,`\omega`,`\varepsilon`,`\vartheta`,`\varphi`) and upper case (`\Alpha`, ...,`\Omega`), arrows (`\leftarrow`or`\gets`,`\rightarrow`or`\to`,`\uparrow`,`\downarrow`,`\leftrightarrow`,`\updownarrow`,`\Leftarrow`,`\Rightarrow`,`\Uparrow`,`\Downarrow`,`\Leftrightarrow`,`\Updownarrow`,`nwarrow`,`nearrow`,`searrow`,`swarrow`,`mapsto`,`hookleftarrow`,`hookrightarrow`,`Longleftrightarrow`,`longmapsto`), and symbols (`\|`,`\ell`,`\partial`,`\infty`,`\emptyset`,`\nabla`,`\perp`,`\angle`,`\triangle`,`\backslash`,`\forall`,`\exists`,`\flat`,`\natural`,`\sharp`,`\pm`,`\mp`,`\cdot`,`\times`,`\star`,`\diamond`,`\cap`,`\cup`, etc.) `\not`followed by comparison operator, such as`\not<`or`\not\approx`- control sequences for function definitions (
`\arccos`,`\arcsin`,`\arctan`,`\arg`,`\cos`,`\cosh`,`\cot`,`\coth`,`\csc`,`\deg`,`\det`,`\dim`,`\exp`,`\gcd`,`\hom`,`\inf`,`\injlim`,`\ker`,`\lg`,`\liminf`,`\limsup`,`\ln`,`\log`,`\max`,`\min`,`\Pr`,`\projlim`,`\sec`,`\sin`,`\sinh`,`\sup`,`\tan`,`\tanh`) and custom functions with`operatorname` - accents (
`\hat`,`\check`,`\tilde`,`\acute`,`grave`,`\dot`,`\ddot`,`\dddot`,`breve`,`\bar`,`\vec`,`\overline`,`\widehat`,`\widetilde`,`\underline`) `\left`and`\right`- fractions with
`\frac`or`\over` - roots with
`\sqrt`(without optional radix) or`\root`...`\of`... `\atop`,`\overset`, and`\underset`- large operators (
`\bigcap`,`\bigcup`,`\bigodot`,`\bigoplus`,`\bigotimes`,`\bigsqcup`,`\biguplus`,`\bigvee`,`\bigwedge`,`\coprod`,`\prod`, and`\sum`with implicit`\limits`for limits below and above the symbol; and`\int`,`\iint`,`\iiint`,`\iiiint`,`\oint`, and`\oiint`with implicit`\nolimits`for limits to the right of the symbol) `\limits`and`\nolimits`for functions and large operators- matrices with
`\matrix`,`\pmatrix`,`\bmatrix`,`\Bmatrix`,`\vmatrix`,`\Vmatrix`,`\begin{array}{...}...`/`\end{array}`; values are separated with`&`and rows with`\cr`or`\\` - font selection with
`\rm`for roman,`\bf`for bold face, and`\mit`for math italic - color with
`\color{`*c*`}`where*c*is`black`,`red`,`green`,`blue`,`cyan`,`magenta`,`yellow`,`white`,`orange`,`violet`,`purple`,`brown`,`darkgray`,`gray`, or`lightgray` - hidden element with
`\phantom` - text with
`\hbox{...}`(brace contents is taken verbatim) - horizontal spaces with
`\,``\:``\;``\quad``\qquad`and`\!`

LaTeX features not enumerated above, such as definitions and nested text and equations, are not supported.

`latex2mathml` has also features which are missing in LaTeX.
Unicode is used for both LaTeX input and MathML output. Some semantics is recognized to build subexpressions
which are revealed in the resulting MathML. For instance, in `x+(y+z)w`, `(y+z)`
is a subpexpressions; so is `(y+z)w` with an implicit multiplication (resulting in the
`<mo>⁢<mo>` MathML operator), used as the second operand of the addition. LaTeX
code (like mathematical notation) is sometimes ambiguous and is not always converted to the expected MathML (e.g.
`a(b+c)` is converted to a function call while the same notation could mean the product of `a`
and `b+c`), but this should not have any visible effect when the MathML is typeset.

Operators can be used as freely as in LaTeX. Missing operands result in `<none/>`, as
if there were an empty pair of braces `{}`. Consecutive terms are joined with implicit
multiplications.

Named argument `displaymath` specifies whether the vertical space is tight, like in inline
equations surrounded by text (`false`), or unconstrained, as rendered in separate lines
(`true`). It affects the position of some limits. The default is `true`.

#### Examples

latex2mathml('xy^2') <mrow><mi>x</mi><mo>⁢</mo><msup><mi>y</mi><mn>2</mn></msup></mrow> mml = latex2mathml('\\frac{x_3+5}{x_1+x_2}'); mml = latex2mathml('$\\root n \\of x$'); mml = latex2mathml('\\pmatrix{x & \\sqrt y \\cr \\sin\\phi & \\hat\\ell}'); mml = latex2mathml('\\dot x = #1', mathml([1,2;3,0], false)); mml = latex2mathml('\\lim_{x \\rightarrow 0} f(x)', displaymath=true) mml = latex2mathml('\\lim_{x \\rightarrow 0} f(x)', displaymath=false)

#### See also

### lower

Convert all uppercase letters to lowercase.

#### Syntax

s2 = lower(s1)

#### Description

`lower(s1)` converts all the uppercase letters of string `s1`
to lowercase, according to the Unicode Character Database.

#### Example

lower('abcABC123') abcabc123

#### See also

### mathml

Conversion to MathML.

#### Syntax

str = mathml(x) str = mathml(x, false) str = mathml(..., Format=f, NPrec=n)

#### Description

`mathml(x)` converts its argument `x` to MathML
presentation, returned as a string.

By default, the MathML top-level element is `<math>`.
If the result is to be used as a MathML subelement of a larger equation,
a second input argument equal to the logical value `false` can
be specified to suppress `<math>`.

By default, `mathml` converts numbers like format `'%g'`
of `sprintf`. Named arguments can override them:
`Format` is a single letter format recognized by `sprintf`
and `NPrec` is the precision (number of decimals).

#### Example

mathml(pi) <math> <mn>3.1416</mn> </math> mathml(1e-6, Format='e', NPrec=2) <math> <mrow><mn>1.00</mn><mo>·</mo><msup><mn>10</mn><mn>-6</mn></msup></mrow> </math>

#### See also

`mathmlpoly`,
`latex2mathml`,
`sprintf`

### mathmlpoly

Conversion of a polynomial to MathML.

#### Syntax

str = mathmlpoly(pol) str = mathmlpoly(pol, var) str = mathmlpoly(..., power) str = mathmlpoly(..., false) str = mathmlpoly(..., Format=f, NPrec=n)

#### Description

`mathmlpoly(coef)` converts polynomial coefficients `pol`
to MathML presentation, returned as a string. The polynomial is given as a vector of
coefficients, with the highest power first; e.g., `[1,2,-3]`.

By default, the name of the variable is *x*. An optional second argument
can specify another name as a string, such as `'y'`, or a MathML fragment
beginning with a less-than character, such as `'<mn>3</mn>'`.

Powers can be specified explicitly with an additional argument, a vector which must have the same length as the polynomial coefficients. Negative and fractional numbers are allowed; the imaginary part, if any, is ignored.

By default, the MathML top-level element is `<math>`.
If the result is to be used as a MathML subelement of a larger equation,
an additional input argument (the last unnamed argument) equal to the logical value
`false` can be specified to suppress `<math>`.

Named arguments `format` and `NPrec` have the same effect
as with `mathml`.

#### Examples

Simple third-order polynomial:

mathmlpoly([1,2,5,3])

Polynomial with negative powers of variable `q`:

c = [1, 2.3, 4.5, -2]; mathmlpoly(c, 'q', -(0:numel(c)-1))

Rational fraction:

str = sprintf('<mfrac>%s%s</mfrac>', mathmlpoly(num, false), mathmlpoly(den, false));

#### See also

### md5

Calculate MD5 digest.

#### Syntax

digest = md5(strb) digest = md5(fd) digest = md5(..., type=t)

#### Description

`md5(strb)` calculates the MD5 digest of `strb`
which represents binary data. `strb` can be a string (only the least-significant
byte of each character is considered) or an array of bytes of class `uint8`
or `int8`. The result is a string of 32 hexadecimal digits. It is believed
to be hard to create the input to get a given digest, or to create two inputs with
the same digest.

`md5(fd)` calculates the MD5 digest of the bytes read from file descriptor
`fd` until the end of the file. The file is left open.

Named argument `type` can change the output type. It can be
`'uint8'` for an uint8 array of 16 bytes (raw MD5 hash result),
`'hex'` for its representation as a string of 32 hexadecimal digits (default),
or `base64` for its conversion to Base64 in a string of 24 characters.

MD5 digest is an Internet standard described in RFC 1321.

#### Examples

MD5 of the three characters 'a', 'b', and 'c':

md5('abc') 900150983cd24fb0d6963f7d28e17f72

This can be compared to the result of the command tool `md5` found
on many unix systems:

$ echo -n abc | md5 900150983cd24fb0d6963f7d28e17f72

The following statements calculate the digest of the file `'somefile'`:

fd = fopen('somefile'); digest = md5(fd); fclose(fd);

#### See also

### regexp regexpi

Regular expression match.

#### Syntax

(startIx, endIx, length, grExt) = regexp(str, re) (startIx, endIx, grExt) = regexpi(str, re)

#### Description

`regexp(str,re)` matches regular expression `re` in
string `str`. A regular expression is a string which contains
meta-characters to match classes of characters, repetitions and
alternatives, as described below.

Once a match is found, the remaining part of `str` is parsed
from the end of the previous match to find more matches. The result of
`regexp` is an array of start indices in `str` and an
array of corresponding end indices. Empty matches have a length
`endIx-startIx-1=0`.

The third output argument, if present, is set to a list whose items
correspond to matches. Items are arrays of size 2-by-ng. Each row corresponds
to a group, i.e. a subexpression in parentheses in the regular expression; the
first column contains the index of the first character in `str`
and the second column contains the index of the last character.

`regexpi` is similar to `regexp`, except that
letter case is ignored.

The following regular expression elements are recognized:

- Any character other than those described below
- Literal match.
`.`(dot)- Any character.
`\0`- Nul (0).
`\t`- Tab (9).
`\n`- Newline (10).
`\v`- Vertical tab (11).
`\f`- Form feed (12).
`\r`- Carriage return (13).
`\P`where`P`is one of`\()[]{}?*+/``P``\xNN`- Character whose code is NN in hexadecimal.
`\uNNNN`- Character whose code is NNNN in hexadecimal.
`[...]`- Any of the characters in brackets. Characters can be enumarated (e.g.
`[ax2]`to match`a`,`x`or`2`), provided as ranges with a hyphen (e.g.`[a-c]`to match`a`,`b`or`c`) or any combination. Caret`^`must not appear first; closing bracket`]`must appear first; and hyphen must not be used in a way which could be interpreted as a range. `[^...]`- Any character not enumated in brackets (e.g.
`[^a-z]`for any character except for lowercase letters). `AB`- Catenation of
`A`and`B`. `A|B`- One of
`A`or`B`.`|`has the lowest priority:`ab|c`matches`ab`or`c`. `A?``A`(if possible) or nothing.`A*`- As many repetitions of
`A`as possible, including none. `A+`- As many repetitions of
`A`as possible, at least one. `A{n}`- Exactly
`n`repetitions of`A`. `A{n,}`- At least
`n`repetitions of`A`(as many as possible). `A{n,m}`- Between
`n`and`m`repetitions of`A`(as many as possible). `A??`- Nothing (if possible) or
`A`. `A*?`- As few repetitions of
`A`as possible, including none. `A+?`- As few repetitions of
`A`as possible, at least one. `A{n,}?`- At least
`n`repetitions of`A`(as few as possible). `A{n,m}?`- Between
`n`and`m`repetitions of`A`(as few as possible). `A?+`,`A*?`,`A++`,`A{...}+`- Possessive repetitions: as many as possible, but once the maximum number has been found, does not try less repetitions should the remaining part of the regular expression fail to match anything.
`(A)`- Group; matches subexpression
`A`, which is captured for further reference as`\N`. `(?:A)`- Group without capture; just matches subexpression
`A`. `\N`where`N`is a digit from 1 to 9- Character substring which was matched by the N:th group delimited by parentheses.
`^`- Matches beginning of string.
`$`- Matches end of string.
`\b`- Beginning or end of word.
`(?=A)`- Positive lookahead: succeeds if what follows matches
`A`without consuming`A`. `(?!A)`- Negative lookahead: succeeds if what follows does not match
`A`without consuming`A`. `(?# comment)`- Comment (ignored).
`\d`- Digit (can be used inside or outside brackets).
`\D`- Not a digit (can be used inside or outside brackets).
`\s`- White space (can be used inside or outside brackets).
`\S`- Not white space (can be used inside or outside brackets).
`\w`- Alphanumeric (can be used inside or outside brackets).
`\W`- Not alphanumeric (can be used inside or outside brackets).
`[:alnum:]`- Same as
`A-Za-z0-9`(must be used inside brackets, e.g.`[[:alnum:]]`) `[:alpha:]`- Same as
`A-Za-z`(must be used inside brackets, e.g.`[[:alpha:]]`) `[:blank:]`- Same as
`\x20\x09`, i.e. space or tab (must be used inside brackets, e.g.`[[:blank:]]`) `[:cntrl:]`- Same as
`\0-\x1f`(must be used inside brackets, e.g.`[[:cntrl:]]`) `[:digit:]`- Same as
`0-9`(must be used inside brackets, e.g.`[[:digit:]]`) `[:graph:]`- Same as
`\x21-\x7e`, i.e. ASCII characters without space and control characters (must be used inside brackets, e.g.`[[:graph:]]`) `[:lower:]`- Same as
`a-z`(must be used inside brackets, e.g.`[^[:lower:][:digit:]]`which is equivalent to`[^a-z0-9]`) `[:print:]`- Same as
`\x20-\x7e`, i.e. ASCII characters without control characters (must be used inside brackets, e.g.`[[:print:]]`) `[:punct:]`- Same as
`!"#$%&'()*+,-./:;<=>?@[\]^_`{|}~`(must be used inside brackets, e.g.`[[:punct:]]`) `[:space:]`- Same as
`\x20\x09\x0a\x0c\x0d`or`\s`(must be used inside brackets, e.g.`[[:space:]]`) `[:upper:]`- Same as
`A-Z`(must be used inside brackets, e.g.`[[:upper:]]`) `[:word:]`- Same as
`[:alnum:]_`(must be used inside brackets, e.g.`[[:word:]]`) `[:xdigit:]`- Same as
`0-9A-Fa-f`(must be used inside brackets, e.g.`[[:xdigit:]]`)

Quantifiers `?`, `*` and `+`, and their lazy
and possessive versions (suffixed with `?` or `+` respectively)
have the highest priority. Priority can be changed with parentheses, e.g.
`(abc)*` or `(a|bc)d`.

#### Examples

Simple match without metacharacter:

(startIx, endIx) = regexp('Some random string', 'om') startIx = 2 10 endIx = 3 11

Dot to match any character:

regexp('Some random string', 'S..e') 1

Anchor to end of string:

regexp('Some random string', '..$') 17

Repetition:

regexp('Some random string', 'r.*m') 6

By default, repetitions are greedy (as many as possible):

(startIx, endIx) = regexp('Some random string', '.*m') startIx = 1 endIx = 11

Lazy repetition (as few as possible):

(startIx, endIx) = regexp('Some random string', '.*?m') startIx = 1 4 endIx = 3 11

Possessive repetitions keep the largest number of repetitions which provides a match regardless of subsequent failures:

(startIx, endIx) = regexp('Some random string', '.*m ') startIx = 1 endIx = 12 (startIx, endIx) = regexp('Some random string', '.*+m ') startIx = [] endIx = []

Since backslash is an escape character in LME strings, it must be escaped itself:

(startIx, endIx) = regexp('Some random string', '\\b\\w.+?\\b') startIx = 1 6 13 endIx = 4 11 18

Reference to a captured group:

(startIx, endIx) = regexp('xx-ab-ab', '(.+)-\\1') startIx = 4 endIx = 8

Positive lookahead to find words followed by a colon without picking the colon itself:

(startIx, endIx) = regexp('mailto:foo@example.com', '\\b\\w+(?=:)') startIx = 1 endIx = 6

Group (the extent of the whole match is ignored using placeholder output
arguments `~`):

(~, ~, grExt) = regexp('Regexp are fun', '\\b(\\w+)\\s+(\\w+)\\s+(\\w+)\\b'); grExt{1} 1 6 8 10 12 14

Match ignoring case:

regexpi('Some random string', 'some') 1

Case-explicit character classes are still case-significant, but character enumerations or ranges are not:

regexpi('Some random string', '^[[:lower:]]') [] regexpi('Some random string', '^[a-z]') 1

#### See also

### setstr

Conversion of an array to a string.

#### Syntax

str = setstr(A)

#### Description

`setstr(A)` converts the elements of array `A` to
characters, resulting in a string of the same size. Characters are stored in
unsigned 16-bit words.

#### Example

setstr(65:75) ABCDEFGHIJK

#### See also

### sha1 sha2

Calculate SHA-1 or SHA-2 digest.

#### Syntax

digest = sha1(strb) digest = sha1(fd) digest = sha1(..., type=t) digest = sha2(...) digest = sha2(..., variant=v)

#### Description

`sha1(strb)` calculates the SHA-1 digest of `strb`
which represents binary data. `strb` can be a string (only the least-significant
byte of each character is considered) or an array of bytes of class `uint8`
or `int8`. The result is a string of 40 hexadecimal digits. It is believed
to be hard to create the input to get a given digest, or to create two inputs with
the same digest.

`sha1(fd)` calculates the SHA-1 digest of the bytes read from file descriptor
`fd` until the end of the file. The file is left open.

Named argument `type` can change the output type. It can be
`'uint8'` for an uint8 array of 20 bytes (raw SHA-1 hash result),
`'hex'` for its representation as a string of 40 hexadecimal digits (default),
or `base64` for its conversion to Base64 in a string of 28 characters.

SHA-1 digest is an Internet standard described in RFC 3174.

`sha2` calculates the SHA-256 digest, a 256-bit variant of the SHA-2 hash
algorithm. Its arguments are the same as those of `sha1`. In addition,
named argument `variant` can specify one of the supported SHA-2 variants: 224,
256 (default), 384, or 512.

#### Example

SHA-1 digest of the three characters `'a'`, `'b'`, and
`'c'`:

sha1('abc') a9993e364706816aba3e25717850c26c9cd0d89d

SHA-224 digest of the empty message `''`:

sha2('', variant=224) d14a028c2a3a2bc9476102bb288234c415a2b01f828ea62ac5b3e42f

#### See also

### split

Split a string.

#### Syntax

L = split(string, separator)

#### Description

`split(string,separator)` finds substrings of `string`
separated by `separator` and return them as a list. Empty substring
are discarded. `sepatator` is a string of one or more characters.

#### Examples

split('abc;de;f', ';') {'abc', 'de', 'f'} split('++a+++b+++','++') {'a', '+b', '+'}

#### See also

### strcmp

String comparison.

#### Syntax

b = strcmp(s1, s2) b = strcmp(s1, s2, n)

#### Description

`strcmp(s1, s2)` is true if the strings `s1` and
`s2` are equal (i.e. same length and corresponding characters
are equal). `strcmp(s1, s2, n)` compares the strings up to the
n:th character. Note that this function does not return the same result as
the `strcmp` function of the standard C library.

#### Examples

strcmp('abc','abc') true strcmp('abc','def') false strcmp('abc','abd',2) true strcmp('abc','abd',5) false

#### See also

`strcmpi`,
operator `===`,
operator `~==`,
operator `==`,
`strfind`,
`strmatch`

### strcmpi

String comparison with ignoring letter case.

#### Syntax

b = strcmpi(s1, s2) b = strcmpi(s1, s2, n)

#### Description

`strcmpi` compares strings for equality, ignoring letter
case. In every other respect, it behaves like `strcmp`.

#### Examples

strcmpi('abc','aBc') true strcmpi('Abc','abd',2) true

#### See also

`strcmp`,
operator `===`,
operator `~==`,
operator `==`,
`strfind`,
`strmatch`

### strfind

Find a substring in a string.

#### Syntax

pos = strfind(str, sub)

#### Description

`strfind(str,sub)` finds occurrences of string `sub`
in string `str` and returns a vector of the positions of all
occurrences, or the empty vector `[]` if there is none.
Occurrences may overlap.

#### Examples

strfind('ababcdbaaab','ab') 1 3 10 strfind('ababcdbaaab','ac') [] strfind('aaaaaa','aaa') 1 2 3

#### See also

`find`,
`strcmp`,
`strrep`,
`split`,
`strmatch`,
`strtok`

### strmatch

String match.

#### Syntax

i = strmatch(str, strMatrix) i = strmatch(str, strList) i = strmatch(..., 'exact')

#### Description

`strmatch(str,strMatrix)` compares string `str` with each
row of the character matrix `strMatrix`; it returns the index of the
first row whose beginning is equal to `str`, or 0 if no match is found.
Case is significant.

`strmatch(str,strList)` compares string `str` with each
element of list or cell array `strList`, which must be strings.

With a third argument, which must be the string `'exact'`, `str`
must match the complete row or element of the second argument, not only the beginning.

#### Examples

strmatch('abc',['axyz';'uabc';'abcd';'efgh']) 3 strmatch('abc',['axyz';'uabc';'abcd';'efgh'],'exact') 0 strmatch('abc',{'ABC','axyz','abcdefg','ab','abcd'}) 3

#### See also

### strrep

Replace a substring in a string.

#### Syntax

newstr = strrep(str, sub, repl)

#### Description

`strrep(str,sub,repl)` replaces all occurrences of string
`sub` in string `str` with string `repl`.

#### Examples

strrep('ababcdbaaab','ab','X') 'XXcdbaaX' strrep('aaaaaaa','aaa','12345') '1234512345a'

#### See also

`strfind`,
`strcmp`,
`strmatch`,
`strtok`

### strtok

Token search in string.

#### Syntax

(token, remainder) = strtok(str) (token, remainder) = strtok(str, separators)

#### Description

`strtok(str)` gives the first token in string `str`. A
token is defined as a substring delimited by separators or by the beginning or end
of the string; by default, separators are spaces, tabulators, carriage returns and
line feeds. If no token is found (i.e. if `str` is empty or contains
only separator characters), the result is the empty string.

The optional second output is set to what follows immediately the token,
including separators. If no token is found, it is the same as `str`.

An optional second input argument contains the separators in a string.

#### Examples

Strings are displayed with quotes to show clearly the separators.

strtok(' ab cde ') 'ab' (t, r) = strtok(' ab cde ') t = 'ab' r = ' cde ' (t, r) = strtok('2, 5, 3') t = '2' r = ', 5, 3'

#### See also

### strtrim

Remove leading and trailing blank characters from a string.

#### Syntax

s2 = strtrim(s1)

#### Description

`strtrim(s1)` removes the leading and trailing blank characters from string
`s1`. Blank characters are spaces (code 32), tabulators (code 9),
carriage returns (code 13), line feeds (code 10), and null characters (code 0).

#### Example

double(' \tAB CD\r\n\0') 32 9 65 66 32 32 67 68 13 10 0 double(strtrim(' \tAB CD\n\r\0'))) 65 66 32 32 67 68

#### See also

### unicodeclass

Unicode character class.

#### Syntax

cls = unicodeclass(c)

#### Description

`unicodeclass(c)` gives the Unicode character class
(General_Category property in the Unicode Character Database) of its argument
`c`, which must be a single-character string. The result is one of the
following two-character strings:

Class | Description | Class | Description |
---|---|---|---|

'Lu' | Letter, Uppercase | 'Pi' | Punctuation, Initial qupte |

'Ll' | Letter, Lowercase | 'Pf' | Punctuation, Final Quote |

'Lt' | Letter, Titlecase | 'Po' | Punctuation, Other |

'Lm' | Letter, Modifier | 'Sm' | Symbol, Math |

'Lo' | Letter, Other | 'Sc' | Symbol, Currency |

'Mn' | Mark, Non-Spcacing | 'Sk' | Symbol, Modifier |

'Mc' | Mark, Spacing Combining | 'So' | Symbol, Other |

'Me' | Mark, Enclosing | 'Zs' | Separator, Spcace |

'Nd' | Number, Decimal Digit | 'Zl' | Separator, Line |

'Nl' | Number, Letter | 'Zp' | Separator, Paragraph |

'No' | Number, Other | 'Cc' | Other, Control |

'Pc' | Punctuation, Connector | 'Cf' | Other, Format |

'Pd' | Punctuation, Dash | 'Cs' | Other, Surrogate |

'Ps' | Punctuation, Open | 'Co' | Other, Private Use |

'Pe' | Punctuation, Close | 'Cn' | Other, Not Assigned |

#### See also

### upper

Convert all lowercase letters to lowercase.

#### Syntax

s2 = upper(s1)

#### Description

`upper(s1)` converts all the lowercase letters of string `s1`
to uppercase, according to the Unicode Character Database.

#### Example

upper('abcABC123') ABCABC123

#### See also

### utf32decode

Decode Unicode characters encoded with UTF-32.

#### Syntax

str = utf32decode(b)

#### Description

`utf32decode(b)` decodes the contents of uint32 or int32 array `b`
which represents Unicode characters encoded with UTF-32 (basically, Unicode code point).
The result is a standard character array with a single row, usually encoded with UTF-16.
Invalid codes are ignored.

If all the codes in `b` correspond to the Basic Multilingual Plane (16-bits,
and not surrogate 0xd800-0xdfff), the result is equivalent to `char(b)`.

#### See also

### utf32encode

Encode a string of Unicode characters using UTF-32.

#### Syntax

b = utf32encode(str)

#### Description

`utf32encode(str)` encodes the contents of character array `str`
using UTF-32. Each Unicode character in `str`, made of 1 or 2 UTF-16 words,
corresponds to one UTF-32 code. The result is an array of unsigned 32-bit integers.

If all the characters in `str` correspond to the Basic Multilingual Plane (16-bits,
and no surrogate pairs), the result is equivalent to `uint32(str)`.

#### Examples

utf32encode('abc') 1x3 uint32 array 97 98 99 str = utf32decode(65872uint32); double(str) 55296 56656 utf32encode(str) 65872uint32

#### See also

### utf8decode

Decode Unicode characters encoded with UTF-8.

#### Syntax

str = utf8decode(b)

#### Description

`utf8decode(b)` decodes the contents of uint8 or int8 array `b`
which represents Unicode characters encoded with UTF-8. Each Unicode character corresponds
to up to 4 bytes of UTF-8 code. The result is a standard character array with a
single row; characters are usually encoded as UTF-16, with 1 or 2 words per character.
Invalid codes (for example when the beginning of the decoded data does not
correspond to a character boundary) are ignored.

#### See also

### utf8encode

Encode a string of Unicode characters using UTF-8.

#### Syntax

b = utf8encode(str)

#### Description

`utf8encode(str)` encodes the contents of character array `str`
using UTF-8. Each Unicode character in `str` corresponds
to up to 4 bytes of UTF-8 code. The result is an array of unsigned 8-bit integers.

If the input string does not contain Unicode characters, the output is invalid.

#### Example

b = utf8encode(['abc', 200, 2000, 20000]) b = 1x10 uint8 array 97 98 99 195 136 223 144 228 184 160 str = utf8decode(b); double(str) 97 98 99 200 2000 20000